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Top Attraction of Berlin Charlottenburg Palace Schloß Charlottenburg

Schloss Charlottenburg is an early eighteenth century Baroque palace in Berlin's western Charlottenburg district. The building burned to the ground during the Second World War but has been completely reconstructed.

History

 Charlottenburg Palace

Charlottenburg Palace is the largest palace in Berlin. The original, central part was constructed between 1695 and 1699 as the summer residence for Sophie Charlotte, wife of the Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick III.

The palace, designed by Johann Arnold Nering, was expanded shortly after Frederick became the first Prussian King in 1701 as Friedrich I.

Swedish master Johann Friedrich Eosander von Göthe supervised the expansion, which included the addition of the 48 meter tall cupola and the construction of the orangery at the west wing. 
 
Glass-Bedchamber
 Glass Bedchamber
 
Chapel
 
A statue of the goddess Fortuna was placed on top of the cupola.

In 1740 Frederick the Great - king Frederick III - commissioned the expansion of the east wing to complement the longer west wing. It was completed six years later after a design by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff. The palace was hit in 1943 during an allied air raid causing a fire which completely destroyed the building. After the war the palace was meticulously reconstructed.

Interior

The interior was just as beautifully reconstructed. The royal rooms are open to visitors, such as the Oak Gallery, paneled with oak and lined with oil paintings. The porcelain gallery, decorated with mirrors, has a fine display of Chinese porcelain. Other interesting rooms include the White Hall, the rococo style Golden Gallery and The Gallery of the Romantics, which has a collection of paintings from the German Romantic period. Also noteworthy is the Schlosskapelle, the completely reconstructed palace chapel.

Charlottenburg park

 Schlossgarten


Belvedere
 
The park behind Schloss Charlottenburg was originally laid out in French Baroque style. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the park was converted into a less formal, landscaped garden. With the reconstruction of the park after the war, a small part was laid out in French style again.

In the beautiful park you'll find a number of buildings such as the mausoleum, a Doric temple built in 1810 as the burial place for members of the royal family. It contains the sarcophagus of Friedrich Wilhelm II among others.

Another building in the garden is the Belvedere, commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II and built between 1788 and 1790 as a teahouse. Near the palace is the Schinkel pavilion, built by the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel for king Friedrich Wilhelm III. In front of the pavilion are two columns, topped with statues symbolizing victory.

Statue of the Great Elector

 The Great Elector

At the entrance of the palace stands a large equestrian statue of the Great Elector. It was designed in 1698 by Andreas Schlüter and commissioned by king Friedrich I, the elector's son. At the base of the statue are four chained warriors, symbolizing the four temperaments (which stem from the antiquity where they were used to describe personalities).

The statue was originally located in front of the Stadtschloss at the Museum Island, but during the Second World War the statue was submerged to the bottom of the Tegeler See, a large lake in Berlin. The statue was recovered in 1952 and after a restoration it was moved to the Charlottenburg Palace.

Top Attractions of London St. Paul's Cathedral

The majestic St. Paul's Cathedral was built by Christopher Wren between 1675 and 1711. It is one of Europe's largest cathedrals and its dome is only exceeded in size by that of the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

History

St.-Paul's-Cathedral


St. Paul's Cathedral
St.-Paul's-Cathedral

St. Paul's Cathedral
St.-Paul's-Cathedral
 St. Paul's Cathedral seen from Millennium Bridge

St. Paul's Cathedral has had an eventful history. Five different churches were built at this site. The first church, dedicated to the apostle Paul, dates back to 604 AD, when King Ethelbert of Kent built a wooden church on the summit of one of London's hills for Mellitus, Bishop of the East Saxons. At the end of the seventh century, the church was built in stone by Erkenwald, Bishop of London.

In 962 and again in 1087, the cathedral was destroyed by fire, but each time it was rebuilt and expanded. By that time, it had become one of the largest cathedrals in Europe. Renovations and extensions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries enlarged the cathedral even more.


The Great Fire

St.-Paul's-Cathedral-Scale-model


Scale model of the
old St. Paul's Cathedral

In 1665 Christopher Wren designed a plan for the renovation of the St. Paul's Cathedral, which was starting to fall into decay. But disaster struck again on the night of September 2, 1666, when the Great Fire of London destroyed four fifth of all of London, wiping 13,200 houses and 89 churches, including the St. Paul's Cathedral off the map.


Christopher Wren's Masterpiece


In 1669, three years after the fire, Christopher Wren was appointed 'Surveyor of Works' and was tasked with the construction of a new church to replace the destroyed Gothic cathedral.
St.-Paul's-Cathedral-South-facade

South facade

St.-Paul's-Cathedral-front-facade
 St. Paul's Cathedral front facade
His first design was deemed too modest. In his second design, known as the 'Great Model', the cathedral was shaped like a Greek cross, with a portico, Corinthian columns and a striking large dome, which would be the world's largest after Michelangelo's dome at the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. This design was rejected as well; the Bishop considered it unsuitable for large processions.

Wren suggested a third design, this time with a larger nave and smaller dome, which was accepted in 1675. After the approval however Wren enlarged the dome and made several other adjustments so that the built cathedral now resembles the 'Great Model' and not the approved design.

The cathedral was built in a relative short time span: its first stone was laid on June 21, 1675 and the building was completed in 1711.


The Church


The Dome

St.-Paul's-Cathedral-Cathedral-dome


Cathedral dome

The dome reaches a height of 111 meters (366 ft) and weights about 66,000 ton. Eight arches support the dome. On top of the dome is a large lantern with a weight of 850 ton.
560 steps lead visitors along three galleries all the way to the top of the dome. The first gallery, the Whispering Gallery, just inside the dome, is renowned for its acoustics. The second gallery, the Stone Gallery, is situated at a height of 53 meters (174 ft) on the outside of the dome, right above the colonnade. On top of the dome, at a height of 85 meters (279 ft), is the narrow Golden Gallery, which encircles the lantern's base. From here you have a magnificent view over the City.


Interior


The Baroque interior is just as imposing as the exterior of the church. The mosaics on the ceiling were added in 1890 by William Richmond after Queen Victoria complained that there was not enough color in the cathedral. The baldachin above the altar was rebuilt in 1958 after it was damaged by bombardments during World War II. The design is based on a sketch created by Wren. The only monument in the church that survived the fire of 1666 is the tomb of John Donne, from 1631.
Several famous people are entombed in the cathedral's crypt. Most notable are the tomb of the Duke of Wellington - who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo - and the tomb of Admiral Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar. 
St.-Paul's-Cathedral-west-facade

The west facade
There is also a tomb of Christopher Wren himself and a number of important artists are buried here as well.


The West Facade


The impressive facade at the west side of the church consists of a large portico and pediment. A relief on the tympanum depicts the conversion of Paul and was created in 1706. The portico is flanked by two towers which weren't part of the original plan. Wren added them at the last minute, in 1707.


Important Events


The church was the site of a number of important historic events such as the funeral of Admiral Nelson in 1806 and the funeral of Winston Churchill in 1965. Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer married here in 1981.
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